DUTY OF PARENTS TO EDUCATE THEIR CHILDREN
It is the highest duty of parents, preceptors., and
relatives to adorn children with good sound education,
nobility of character, refinement of manners, and amiability
wearing of jewelry (gold, silver, pearls, rubies, diamonds.
etc.) adds no beauty to the soul. It only arouses vanity
and other lower passions, gives rise to fear of robbery,
and may even be the cause of death. Many a child has
been known to lose its life at hands of cut-throats
because of wearing jewelry.
are the men and women whose minds are centred on the
acquisition of knowledge; who possess sweet and amiable
tempers; who cultivate truthfulness and other similar
virtues; who are free from vanity and uncleanliness.;
who enlighten the minds of those who are in ignorance;
whose chief delight consists in promoting the happiness
of others by the preaching of truth, by generous distribution
of knowledge without fee or reward; and who are engaged
in altruistic work as prescribed by the Vedas."
to be performed at the age of 8, both in the case of
boys and girls.
and girls, when they attain to the age of 8 years, should
be sent to their prespective schools. In no instance,
should they be placed under the tuition of teachers
of low character. Only those persons are qualified to
teach who are master of their art and are imbued with
piety. Dwijaas (twice-born) should have the Upnayan*
of their children (boths sons and daughters), done at
home, before sending
*Initiation into student life
of which the outward symbol is the sacred thread. - Rama
to their respective schools. The seminary should be
situated in a sequestered place. The boy's school should
be at least 3 miles distant from that of the girls.
The preceptors and employees, such as servants, should,
in the boy's school, be all of the male sex, and the
girl's school fo the female sex. Not even a child of
5 years of the opposite sex should be allowed to enter
the school. As long as they are Brahmacharis (students)
they should abstain from the following eight kinds of
sexual excitement in relation to persons of the opposite
students of both sexes to be guarded against sexual
excitement of all sorts.
upon them with an eye of lust;
sexual intercourse with them;
conversing with them;
or talking of libidinous subjects;
in lascivious thoughts.
principles underlying the Gurukula (seminary) system
should see that they keep aloof from the above things,
and thus perfect knowledge, cultivate amiable dispositions
and manners, gain in strength both of body and mind,
and thereby grow in happiness. The school must not be
nearer than five miles to a town or a village. All scholars
should be treated alike in the matter of food, drink,
dress, seats, etc.
they princes and princesses or the children of beggars,
all should practice asceticism.** They should be not
allowed to see the parents, or hold any communication
whatever with them. Being thus feed from all worldly
worries and cares, they should devote themselves heart
and soul to their studies. Their teachers should accompany
them in all their studies. Their teachers should accompany
them in all their recreations, so that they may not
fall into any mischief, get indolent
*The last two constitute a sort
of mental intercourse with persons of the opposite sex.
**By asceticism is here meant
sever bodily and mental discipline - in other words simple
living and high thinking should be the motto of the students.
They should not solicit bodily comfort, instead bear all
kind of hardships in order to wholly and solely devote
themselves to the acquisition of knowledge, culture, etc.
naughty. Manu says:-
"Both state and society should make it compulsory upon
all to send their children (both male and female) to
school after the 5th or 8th year. It should be made
a penal offence to keep a child at home after that age."
MANU 7: 152 (Free compulsory education).
GAYATRI MANTRA - A PRAYER FOR ILLUMINATION OF THE
The first Upanayana ceremony should be performed
at home, and the second in the school. Parents as well
as teachers should teach Gayatri
to the children with its meanings, thus:-
"O lord! O personification of True existence, Intelligence
and Bliss! Everlasting, Holy All-wise, Immortal, Thou
art unborn, without any symbolical distinction and organization,
Omniscient, Sustainer and Ruler of the Universe, Creator
of all, Eternal, Protector and preserver of the Universe,
O All-pervading Spirit! O Ocean of mercy! Thou art the
Life of the Creation, Thou art an All-blissful, Being
the very contemplation of Whom wipes off all our pains
and sorrows; Thou
*Aum Bhur Bhuvah swah, Tat Savituh
Varneyam Bhargo Devasya Dhimahi Dhiyoh Yah nah Prachodyaat.
The words and meaning of the Gayatri Mantra are:-
- See Chapter
- One Who is Life and Support of the whole Universe,
is dearer than life itself and is Self-existent.
- One Who Himself is free from all sorrows and pains,
and Whose contemplation wipes off all over, pains
- One Who pervades this multiform universe and
is the Support of all.
- Of One Who is the maker of the Whole World and from
Whom all power proceeds.
- One Who is All-holy and worthy of our adoration.
- is One Who is Himself pure by nature and purifies
others and Who is All-intelligence.
- of One Who bestows happiness on all and is sought
after by all.
- May we contemplate.
- Understandings. (intellect).
- May guide
the Sustainer of the Universe,
of all; may we contemplate Thy holy adorable nature so
that Thou mayest guide our understanding. Thou art our
God, who alone art to be adored and worshipped. There
is none beside, Thee, who is equal to Thee or above Thee.
Thou alone art our Father, Ruler, and Judge. Thou alone
bestoweth happiness." YAJUR VEDA 36: 3.
they have learnt the above mantra with its meanings,
they should be taught the method of 'Divine Worship'
with its preliminaries and accessories a Bathing. Achamana
(Sipping of sanctified water) and Praanaayaama (Deep
ACCESSORIES OF SANDHYA OR DIVINE MEDITATION
The preparatory, non-essential stages of worship are:-
- which effects bodily cleanliness, and ensures health.
"Water washes off the impurities of the body. Truth
exalts the mind. Knowledge and strict devotion to
duty elevate the soul. Possession of ideas refines
the intellect." MANU 5: 109. Every man should, therefore,
bathe before his first meal.
- This consists in taking in as much water as
can be held in the palm of one's hand by applying
the lips to the root and centre of it. The quantity
of water should be just sufficient to reach the
lower part of the throat. Its object is to relieve
irritation of the throat of dryness thereof it
- is to sprinkle wate, with the points of the
middle and index fingers, on the face and other
parts of one's body. Its object is remove drowsiness.
If a person be not drowsy, or if water be not
obtainable, it can be dispensed with.
*Only the stages of 'Divine Worship'
are her given. The author has treated this subject in
detail in his book called "The Five Great Daily Duties."
ESSENTIAL STAGES OF DIVINE MEDITATION
The essential stages of (Sandhyaopaasanaa)
are as follows:-
SITE SUITABLE FOR DIVINE MEDITATION
- or control of the breath. Says Patanjali,
in his Yoga Shaastra :-
"The practice of Praanaayaama gradually burns
off all impurities and exalts the soul. The light
of knowledge in the soul goes on continually increasing
till the soul is emancipated." YOGA Shaastra Saadhanapaada,
"Just as a goldsmith, by blowing stronghly against
a piece of impure gold, removes its impurities by
oxidation, so does Praanaayaama burns off
all impurities of the mind and senses." MANU 6:
of Praanaayaama - "As in the act of vomiting
all the contents of the stomach are violently expelled,
so should the breath be expired forcibly, and hel
out as long as possible by drawing up the epelvic
viscera." YOGA Shaastra, Samadhipada, 38.
discomfort is felt, the air should be gently inspired.
This process should be repeated according to one's
desire and strength. This exalts the purity of the
soul and develops concentration of mind. Praanaayaama
is of four kinds:-
as well as boys, should practice Praanaayaama.
Vishaya - It is the process desired above
in which the breath is held out as long as possible.
- In which the breath is held in as long as possible.
Vritti - In which the breathing is suddenly
stopped at any stage of respiration.
- In which the ordinary course of breathing is
reversed, expiration is forcibly begun
inspiration is going on, and vice versa. By
thus reversing the course of respiration, both
expiration and inspiration are in turn stopped,
and thus the processes of respiration, and consequently
and mind and senses come under the direct control
of the Will.
the increase of bodily strength and activity,
the intellect becomes so subtle that it can
easily grasp the most abstruse and profound
subjects. It also helps to preserve and perfect
the reproductive element in the human body,
which, in its turn, produces self-control, firmness
of mind, strength, energy, and acuteness of
- Repentance and intense desire to keep aloof from
the even the thought of sin.
Prakrimana - Mental Rotation, i.e., - turning
one's mind in all the six different directions of
space - North, South, East and West, Above and Below
- and feeling in each the presence of God.
- Realization of God as the source of all Light, Life,
- Glorification; Praathnaa --Prayer; Upaasanaa
This Sandhaopaasanaa should be performed i some
lonely spot, with a concentrated mind. Manu says:- "Seek
some lonely spot, by the side of the water, concentrate
your mind and perform your Sandhyopaasanaa. Never
forget to recite* the Gayatri Mantra and contemplate
its manifold meaning. act accordingly."MANU 2: 104.
*It is best to reciteGayatri
should also teach all that is necessary regarding diet,
dress and proper behaviour towards superiors and inferiors.
SECOND GREAT DAILY DUTY
Devayagna, the second Great Daily Duty, comprises
(Agnihotra - the feeding of fire with clarified butter
and aromatic substances for sanitary purposes - and
associating with, and serving devout and learned persons.
two duties - Sandhya
- are to be performed twice daily - morning and afternoon
- it is only twice during 24 hours that day and night
hour, at least, should be devoted to Divine Contemplation,
which should be practised with perfect concentration
of mind, as Yogis practise Yoga.
time for Agnihotra is twice daily, i.e., just
after Sunrise and just before Sunset.
vessels to be used are:-
- a vessel (earthen or metalic), having the shape
of an inverted truncated pyramid, for making the fire
in. It should have the following dimensions:- Depth
and each side of the base being 9 to 12 inches, and
each side of the apex 2-1/4 to 3 inches, i,e., each
side of the base being four times the side of the
vessels for containing water, which may be required
for washing hands, etc.
butter dish, to keep the clarified butter in
spoon, made of wood, silver or gold.
Let a few sticks of wood (Sandal, Buica Frondosa
or Mango) in sound condition be laid at the bottom
of the Vedi, fire
placed in the middle and similar pieces of wood on this
again. Let the clarified butter be properly warmed,
mixed with odoriferous substances and then poured over
the fire in the Vedi, the Homa
being recited the while, one spoonful each time a mantra
for performing Homa are given below in Question
and Answer form:-
- What is the good of doing Homa?
It is a well-known fact that impure air and impure water
are productive of disease, which, in turn, causes so
much pain and misery, whilst pure air and pure water
are productive of health, and consequently of happiness
I should think it would do people more good to apply
Sandal locally as a plaster, and eat butter instead.
Is it wise to waste these things by destroying them
That only shows your ignorance of Physical Science,
for it is one of its cardinal principles that nothing
is really lost in this world. You must have noticed
that, even when you are standing at some distance form
the place where Homa is performed, you can smell
a sweet fragrant odour in the air. That alone proves
that an odoriferous substance put into the fire is not
destroyed, but, on the other hand, being rarefied, fills
the room, and is carried by the air to distant places
where it rids the air of its foulness.
If this be the case, the keeping of such odoriferous
things, as saffron, musk, camphor, scented flowers and
attar, in the house will serve the same purpose.
That scent has not the disintegrating power to rid the
house of its impure air, and replace it by the fresh
pure air. It is fire alone which possesses that power,
whereby it breaks yp the impurities of the air, and
reduces them to their component parts, which, getting
lighter, are expelled form the house and replaced by
fresh air from outside.
What is the object of reciting mantras whilst
The objects are three:-
Mantras explain the uses of Homa.
this way Vedic texts are learnt by heart.
helps the study of the Veda and preservation
Is the omission of Homa a sin?
Yes, the amount of suffering, a man inflicts on his
fellow-beings by polluting the air, and water with the
waste products of his system and consequently bringing
on disease, becomes the measure of his sin, to atone
for which it becomes incumbent on him to perform Homa
and thereby purify air and water to an extent, equal
to, or greater than the mischief he has done.
regards the internal use of these things, that are used
in Homa, such as butter, that would benefit only
the individual who takes them; but the same amount of
material, used as directed above, benefits hundreds
of people. If people were not to eat and drink such
nutritious substances as butter and milk, they could
never gain in strength, physical and mental. Therefore,
it is only right, that they should do so, but more material
should be used in Homa than as food and drink.
It is, therefore, our bounden duty to perform Homa
How many aahootis* (spoonfuls) should a man
pour, and how much clarified butter should each aahooti
Sixteen aahootis and a dram and a half clarified
butter in each aahooti at the least; but it is
permissible to put more butter in each spoonful.
the 'Golden Days' of India, saints and seers, princes
and princesses, kings and queens, and other people used
to spend a large amount of time and money in performing
and helping others to perform Homa; and so long
as this system lasted, India was free from disease and
its people were happy. It can become so again, it the
same system were revised.
*At the end of each Homa mantra
a definite quantity of clarified butter is pured over
the fire. This called aahooti. - Tr.
have described these two Yajnaas which, alone,
are enjoined upon students (Brahmacharis)
is entitled to invest students with the sacred thread?
person can perform Yajnopavita of his own class,
andof hte classes below his own. These he can also teach.
Thus a Brahmana can perform it for Brahmans,
Kshatriyaas and Vaishyaas. A Kshatriaas,
for Kshatriyaa and Vaishyaas only; and
a Vaishyaa, for Vaishyaas only. An intelligent,
respectable Sudra should also be taught all the
Shaastraas barring the Veda, but without
performing his Upnayana. This view is held by
many authorities." SUTRA Sthana, Chapter 2.
OR STUDENT LIFE
(Period of Celibacy
for Brahmacharya - Maximum and minimum.
Manu:- " A student should observe Brahmacharya
and study the Vedas with their subsidiary subjects
for 9, 18, 36 years, or until they are completely mastered".*
MANU 3: 1.
is of three grades:- The lowest, the intermediate and
lowest - "Man, who is composed of a body -
formed out the elements derived form foods and drinks
- and a soul that resides in the body, is verily a
Yajna. He should be endowed with the most excellent
qualities; and in order to accomplish gain , longevity,
strength (physical and mental), and the like qualities,
the shortest period for which a student should observe
is 24 years, just as there are 24 letters in the Gayatri
metre (Chhanda). He should, during this period,
*Thus after joining the school
at the age of 8 years, if a student studies the Vedas
with their subsidiary subjects for 36 years, (i.e.,
he devotes 12 years to the study of each of the three
Vedas), he completes his education at the age
of 36 -8-44, if for 18 years, at the age of 8-18-26
years, if for 9 years, at the age of 8-9-17 years.
(The last period of Brahmacharya is meant for
a girl who wants to marry at the age of 17 years.-Tr.
control over his passions* and devote himself to
the acquisition of the knowledge of the Vedaas
and of culture, etc. By virtue of this Brahmacharya,
vital forces, called Vasus, are fully developed
and mature. These help to produce noblest qualities
in his body, manas** and the soul.
anyone advise a Brahmachaari to marry or
have sensual enjoyment before the age of 25, let
the Brahmachaari answer him thus: "Look you
her, my dear fellow! If my vital forces, mental
faculties and physical organs were not fully developed
and strong, I should not be able to observe Brahmacharya
of the next grade ( which lasts till one is 44 years
old), as the observance of the lowest grade helps
one to keep Brahmacharya of the intermediate
I a fool like you that I should ruin my body, my
vital forces, my mental faculties and even my soul
- which, if properly looked after, endow one with
a noble nature and produce sterling qualities and
help one to perform great deeds, - waste my precious
life, deprive myself of the fourfold fruit of human
life, destroy my Brahmacharya which is the
main spring of all Ashramas or Orders,***
the best of all good works and the source of all
that is good and noble in life, and consequently
sink to the lowest depths of misery and degradation?"
CHHAANDOYYA Upanishad 3: 16.
he that observes his Brahmacharya, acquires
*And even after marriage should
not give a free license to his passions. - Tr.
**Under the term manas
include the principles of attention, thought, memory
and individuality. - Tr.
***Life is divided into 4 stages
or Orders - . Brahmacharya or the period of student
life. 2. Grihasthi aashram or married life.
3. Vanaprastha or spiritual Science, and divine
contemplation. 4. Sanyas aashram or the period
of Renunciation devoted to the preaching of truth
and righteousness allover the world by abandoning
all worldly connections. - Tr.
intermediate - He, that observes Brahmacharya,
for 44 years, - there are 44 letters in Trishtup
Chhanda (metre) - by virtue of this Brahamacharya
attains to that degree of pranas or vital forces
called Rudras, in other words, he becomes a
terror to the wicked and an asylum for the good. No
rascal dare practise his rascality before him. Should
anyone advise such a Brahmachaari to abandon
his life of Brahmacharya, marry and enjoy himself,
let him answer such a man, thus:-
happiness that results form the observance of Brahmacharya
of a higher degree, cannot even be dreamt of by
one who has not led a life of Brahmacharya
and even sensuous pleasures, are more keenly enjoyed
by the former than by the latter.
it is a Brahmachaari alone, who attains to
success in worldly affairs, enjoys perfect unsensous
and spiritual happiness, I will never destroy my
Brahmacharya - the source of the highest
happiness . On the other hand, by virtue of thorough
observance of this Brahmacharya become learned,
virtuous, strong in body and mind and enjoy and
longevity and perfect happiness. I will never listen
to the advice of such senseless creatures as you
are, marry early, and briing ruin on myself and
highest - He that remains a Brahmachaari,
till he is 48 years of age, - there are 48 letters
in the Jagati Chhanda (metre) - by virtue of
this highest kind of Brahmacharya acquires
perfect knowledge, perfect physical strength,* perfect
wisdom, perfect development of
*And enjoys the full span
of life which is 400 years.
qualities, nature and characteristics, shines like
the sun, enlightening all, and is enabled to master
all kinds of knowledge. Should anyone tempt such
a Brahmachaari to destroy His Brahmacharya
- which is really the highest virtue - let him answer
you, foolish wretch! Get away from me. I will never
destroy this Brahmacharya of the highest
order. May the Supreme Spirit, through His grace,
help me to keep this holy vow so that I may be able
to enlighten such fools as you and teach you and
particularly your children, and thereby help you
all to lead happy lives."
are four stages of the human body:-
of Adolescence - from the 16th to the 25th year.
of Manhood - from the 25th year to the 40th year.
of maturity - about the 40th year, when the tissues,
organs and secretions of the body reach their highest
state of perfection. Thereafter comes the
of loss -in which excess of such secretions as reproductive
element, begins to be lost, in sleep or through perspiration,
best time for marriage, therefore is the 40th, or rather
the 48th year.
Does this law of marriage apply equally to both sexes?
No. If a man were to remain celibate (Brahmachari)
for 25, 30, 36, 40, 44 and 48 years, a woman should
do so only for 16, 17, 18, 20 or 24 years, respectively.
rule applies only to those people who intend to marry,
but those who intend not to do so, are welcome to remain
celibates till death, if they can. But they must bear
in mind that this is possible for those persons alone
whose knowledge is perfect, who have full control over
their mind and senses, and who are perfect Yogis,
free from all vices. It is a most difficult task to
be master of the senses, and restrain the flood of carnal
desires. The following rules should be observed both
by pupils and teachers:-
them conduct themselves properly, and study and teach,
be truthful in word, deed, and thought and study and
teach, be indifferent to joy or sorrow, worldly applause
or censure, walk in the path of righteousness, and study
and teach (the Vedaas and the other true sciences),
keep their senses under perfect control, and study and
teach, restrain their minds from evil pursuits (such
as the practice of injustice), and study and teach,
learn the properties of heat, light , electricity, and
other natural forces, and study and teach, perform Homa
daily, and study and teach, serve atithis, and
study and teach, fulfil their duties and obligations
towards other men, and study and teach, protect their
subjects and children, and study and teach, preserve
and prefect the reproductive element, and study and
teach, protect and educate their children and pupils,
and study and teach." TAITREYA UPNISHAD 7: 9.
wise man would do well to practise both Yamaas*
*Yamas are 5 in number:-
(a) Harmlessness; (b) Strict devotion to veracity; (c)
Honesty in word, deed and thought; (d) Abstinence from
sexual indulgence; and (e) abstinence from the headlong
pursuit of worldly things and freedom from the prides
of one's possessions (such as wealth and Power). YOGA
SHASTRA Sadhanapada, 30. - Tr.
and He who practices one without the other, never makes
any progress, on the contrary he simply degenerates,
in other words, leads a degraded life in this world."
MANU 4: 204.
inordinate desire nor its total absence is conductive
to a man's happiness, since it would be simply impossible,
either to lead a virtuous life, or to acquire (Vedic)
Knowledge without desiring for the same."MANU 2: 2
study and teaching of all true sciences; observance
of the vows 9 of Brahmacharya, and truthfulness;
performance of Homa, as well as the acceptance
of truth leading a virtuous life, as enjoined by the
Veda, communion with God, and acquisition of
the knowledge of the Veda; performance of seasonal
Homa,** reproduction of good children, performance
of the Five Great Daily Duties,*** and doing
such other good actions as are productive of beneficial
results to the community such as developing technical
arts; all the eight things to go to make a Brahman,
*Nyamaas are also 5 in number:-
(a) Cleanliness (physical and mental); (b) Contentment
- which does not mean contentedness with physical inertia,
but which does mean that you do your utmost to attain
your object, but are not carried away by the resulting
profit and loss, joy or sorrow; (c) Devotion to duty regardless
of consequences; (d) Acquisition and discrimination of
true knowledge; (e) Resignation to the Will of God through
extreme devotion to Him.
**Specials Homas are performed
at the change of season, as well as on the occasion of
full moon, etc. -Tr.
Five Great Daily Duties
The five great daily duties are,
and duty towards the learned;
of one's parents and other learned and righteous persons;
towards animals and the poor and helpless, and
towards the altruistic teachers of humanity and ordinary
guests, i.e., to show them proper respect and serving
them to the utmost of one's power and means. -Tr.
words, his mind ought to be the repository of Vedic
learning and devotion to God." MANU 2: 27. Without
the practice of the these an individual is never
entitled to be called a Brahman
skilful driver keeps his horses under control ,
even so should a wise man keep his senses - which
are apt to lead both mind and soul into the pursuit
of wicked objects - under complete control." MANU
that man alone can achieve his heart's desire who
is a master of his senses; he who allows himself
to become their slave soon loses* his character."
MANU 2: 93.
man of low character can never succeed in acquiring
knowledge of the Veda; in keeping up his
vows of celibacy, truthfulness, etc.; nor in fulfilling
his duties towards duties towards man and God, keeping
control over his passions and desires, being steadfast
in his devotion to truth and righteousness, and
performing good deeds." MANU 2:97
should be no omission in the study of the Veda
and performance of the Five Great Daily Duties
and other good works even on holidays, as there
is no omission in the act of respiration without
risk to life, so there can be no omission of one's
daily duties; a good deed done even on an Anadhayaaya
- so called day of exemption from study, etc., cannot
but bear good fruit." MANU 2: 105, 106.
it is always a sin to tell a lie, and always a virtue
to speak the truth, a man should on all days shun
vice and practise virtue.
*Literally, becomes addicted to great
vices. - Tr.
who has a sweet and amiable disposition and serves
the wise and old with all his heart, continually
gains in knowledge, reputation and strength and
enjoys a long life." MANU 4: 121. Whilst he that
is otherwise, never advances in knowledge, etc.
a wise man bear malice to no living soul and let
him show all men the path that leads to true happiness,
let his speech be sweet and kindly, let him be truthful
in word, deed, and thought. This alone can lead
to the spread of truth and righteousness. Verily,
he alone can have a true conception of the teachings
of the Vedaas whose mind and speech are pure
and well under control." MANU 2: 159, 160.
Brahmana alone is said to possess true knowledge
of the Veda and God, who shuns the world's
applause like poison and courts its censure like
immortality." MANU 2: 162
let the twice-born students (male and female) who
had there Upanayana performed go on gradually
acquiring knowledge of the Vedaas, which
is their highest duty." MANU 2: 164.
Dwija as well as his children who, instead
of studying the Veda, wastes his time in
doing other things soon goes down to the level of
a Shoodra(lowest in character)." MANU 2:
Brahmachaari (male or female) should abstain
from meat and alcohol, perfumes, garlands of flowers,
tasty foods and drinks, the company of the opposite
sex, sour articles and injury to all living things,
from anointing the body and handling the reproductive
organ unnecessarily, from the use of collyrium,
from the use of boots and shoes and of an umbrella,
or a sunshade, from harbouring low passions such
as anger, avarice, carnal passion, infatuation,
fear, sorrow, jealousy, malice , from singing, dancing,
playing gambling, gossiping, lying and back-biting,
from looking upon women (with the eye of lust),
and embracing them, and from doing harm to other
people, and indulging in such other evil habits.
Let every student sleep alone and never lose his
reproductive element. He who loses it through passion
breaks his vow of Brahmacharya."MANU 2: 177
of any skill or talent you may possess. Never be
indifferent to the acquisition of wealth, power,
etc. Never neglect your duty to serve your father,
mother, teacher, and all preachers of the true religion
(atithi). Love virtue and shun vice. Imbibe our
virtues, not our faults and imperfections. Always
keep the company of those Brahmans (wise men) amongst
us who are learned and imbued with piety; put your
trust in them and them only. Be charitable. Give
- in faith or without faith. For fame, or through
shame, give. Give - whether through fear of public
opinion, or simply for keeping your word.
give. If you are ever in doubt as to the truth of
any practice of religion, or a doctrine, or mode
of divine worship, follow the practice of those
highly virtuous Brahmans, whether Yogis or not,
who are free from prejudice, charitable in disposition,
and well versed in philosophy and science (physical
and spiritual), and extremely desirous of furthering
the cause of righteousness. This the advice. This
the commandment. This is the mandate of the Vedas.
Aye, this is the Law. Follow this advice. Obey the
Law." TAITREYA UPNISHAD 7, 11:1-4
all bear in mind that "even the most insignificant
action, in this world, is impossible without a desire
on the part of the doer. Therefore, whatever a man
does is the outcome of his will." MANU 2: 4.
or righteous living as taught by the Vedas, as well
as, Smritis* in conformity with Vedas, is the highest
*Writings of Aptas in conformity
with the Veda.
(An Apta is a pious, truthful, unprejudiced, hones
and learned man.) - Tr.
the end-all and be-all of all reading and reciting,
studying, teaching and preaching. Let a man, therefore,
always walk in the path of righteousness. He that
swerves from it can never enjoy true happiness -
which is born of strict adherence to the conduct
of life enjoined by the Veda. He alone enjoys, all
true happiness, who requires, knowledge and leads
a righteous life." MANU 1: 108, 109
is an atheist, and a slanderer of the Vedas, who
disparages their teachings, as well as the writings
of true teachers in conformity with the Vedas. He
should be excluded from good society, aye, even
expelled out of the country, (if necessary)."MANU
Vedaas, the Smrities, the practice of men, good
and true, in conformity with the Vedas - the Word
of God, and the satisfaction of one's own soul
- these undoubtedly, are the four criteria of true
religion, which enable one to distinguish between
Right and Wrong" MANU 2: 12.
dealings, the acceptance of truth and the rejection
of untruth, under all circumstances, constitute
the true conduct of life; or Religion,* and
the reverse of this is Irreligion
is only those, who stand aloof form the headlong
pursuit of both wealth and carnal pleasures, that
can ever attain a knowledge of true religion. It
is the duty of everyone, who aspires after this
object to determine, what true
* word used in the text is
Dharma which is a very comprehensive term.
If translated into the guiding principle of all human
activities, it may give some idea to the reader as
to its meaning. - Tr.
ashould instil the aforesaid teachings into the
minds of their pupils. They should take care that
they do not neglect the education of Classes
other than Braahmans, viz,/ - Princes and
other Kshatriyaas, Vaishyaas, and intelligent
Shoodras. Because, if Brahmans only
were to acquire knowledge, there could be no advance
in knowledge, religion, and government, nor increase
in wealth, for Braahmans, whose sole duty
is to acquire knowldge and disseminate it, depend
for their living on Kshatriyaas, etc., to
whom they are law-givers.
would be relieved of all restraint and fear from
Kshatriyaas, who, being uneducated, would
be quite incapable of judging the soundness or unsoundness
of their teachings. They would thus gradually use
their power for theri own selfish ends, drift into
hypocrisy and do whatever they lied and their example
would be followed by other Classes. But when
Kshatriyaas and other Classes are
also well educated, Brahmansstudy still harder
to keep ahead ot the other Classes and walk
could never then falsely teach and lead selfish,
hypocritical lives. It follows, therefore, that
it is in their own interest, as well as that of
the community at large, to try their best to teach
the Veda and other true sciences and philosophies
to the Kshatriyaas and other Classes, that
are thr real cause of advance in knowledge, religion,
and government, and of increase in wealth, etc.
They never live on alms, and, therefore, can have
no reason to be partial in religious or scientific
matters. When all Classes are well educated and
cultured, no one can set up any false, fraudulent,
and irreligious practices.
this goes to prove that it is the Brahmans,
and the Sanyaasis, who keep Kshatriyaas
and others in proper order and vice versa. Therefore
all persons of all Classes should be given good
and sound education and be well instructed in the
principle of true religion.
FIVE TESTS OF TRUTH
The truth of every thing that is learnt or taught
should be carefully examined by the following five
Veda and nature of God - All that conforms
to the teachings of the Vedas, nature,
attributes and characteristics of God is right,
the reverse is wrong.
of Nature - All that tallies with laws
of nature is true, the reverse untrue; e.g., the
statement that a child is born without the sexual
union of its parents, being opposed to the laws
of nature can never be true.
practice and teachings of A'ptaas, -i.e.,
pious, truthful, unprejudiced, honest, and learned
men. All that is unopposed to their practice and
teachings is acceptable and the reverse is unacceptable.
purity and conviction of one's own soul.
- What is good for you is good for the world.
What is painful to you is painful to others. This
ought to be the guiding principle of one's conduct
kinds of evidence
Cognizance (Praatyaksha) is that kind of knowledge,
which is the result of direct contact of the five
senses with their objects,* of the mind (faculty
or organ of attention) with the senses, and of
the soul with mind. NYAAYA Shaastraa 1: i, 4.
this knowledge must not be that of the relation
of words with the things signified, as of
the word "water" with the fluid called "water",
For example, you ask your servant to bring
you some water. He brings water, puts it before
you, and says : 'Here is water, Sir.' Now,
what you and your servant see is not the word
"water" but the object signified by it. So
ou have the direct knowledge of the
object called water. But the knowledge
*As of eyes with light, or ears
with sound, of olfactory sense with colors, of tongue
or question sense with flavours, of tactile sense with
objects tht give rise to the sensation of touch. -Tr.
therefore, that knowledge alone is said to be Direct
Cognizance, which is not the outcome of the relation
of name with the object signified by it, nor gained
under circumstances unfavourable for observation or
experiment (Hence transient in character) nor into which
any element of doubt enters.
knowledge must not be of temporary or transient
character, i.e., not the product of observation
under unfavourable circumstances; for example, a
person saw something at night and took it for a
man , but when it was daylight he found out his
mistake and knew that it was not a man, but a pillar.
Now, his first impression of the thing was of a
temporary or transient nature, which gave place
to permanent knowledge later on, when the true nature
of the thing was revealed in the light.
should be free from all elements of doubt,
and be certain in character. For example, you see
a river from a distance and say: "Is it water there
or white clothes spread out to dry?" Or take another
example, you see a man from a distance and say:
Is it Deva Datta standing there or Yajna Datta?"
Now, as long as you are in doubt and consequently
not sure about a thing you observe, your knowledge
cannot be called Pratyaksha (Direct Cognizance).
To be that the element of doubt must be absolutely
eliminated from it.
- inference - Literally it means that which follows
direct cognizance. Two things have been
observed to exist together at some time and place,
when on some other occasion, one of the woe is observed,
the other, i.e., the unknown can be inferred.* For
instance, you see a child and you at once infer that
he must have had parents. Again, seeing the smoke
issuing from behind a hill you infer the existence
of fire. You infer the previous incarnation of the
soul form observing unequal joy and sorrow in this
world at the present moment.
is of three kinds:-
- is one , in which you reason from cause to effect,
e.g., the inference of coming rain form the sight
of clouds; or, again, you see a wedding and naturally
infer that some day the wedded couple will have
children. Or, again, you see students engaged
in the pursuit of knowledge and you infer that
some day they will become men of learning.
* Note -- In order to make this
point clear I subjoin the following quotation form "Evidences
of Human Spirit" , by the Late Pundit Guru Datt Vidyarthi,
M.A., bearing on the subject of Inference. - Tr.
The known datum or data, from which the unknown something
is inferred is called in Sanskrit Logic, the Linga and
the something inferred is called the Anumeya. With reference
to this question of Inference, says Kashayap the logician:-
That alone is valid datum for inference (Linga) which
has, firstly, been known to co-exist with the thing
to be inferred at some time or place, secondly, is also
known to be present wherever the like of the thing to
be inferred exists, and thirdly, to be absent wherever
the unlike of the thing to be inferred exists.
take, for instance, a concrete example. From the fall
of the barometer is inferred the decrease of the pressure
of air. Let us see if such an inference can be a valid
inference. The fall of the barometer is known. But we
know, form a specific experience, i.e., an experiment
conducted at a particular time and place, that the decrease
of pressure produces the fall of barometer. This fulfils
the first condition. Secondly, similar cases of the
decrease of pressure, by whatsoever cause, are attended
with the fall of barometer, but the third condition
is not fulfilled. It is not true that wherever there
is no fall in the barometer, there is no decrease of
pressure, for, there may be no fall of barometer, although,
the pressure may have been decreased.
mercury, through rise of temperature expands and becomes
lighter. Had the same pressure continued, the column
of mercury would have rise higher up, but the fall of
pressure compensated for the rise, and left the mercury
conclusively proved that the fall of the barometer is
not the linga of decrease of pressure. Similar reasoning
will show that the decrease in the weight of the super-incumbent
column of mercury is the linga (inference) of the decrease
- inference is one, in which you reason from effects
to causes. Examples:- You see a flood in the
river, and infer that it must have rained on the mountain
from which the river issues. Again, you see a child
and at once infer that the child must have had a father.
Again, you see this world and infer the existence of
the Spiritual cause - the Creator, as well as of a Material
cause - the elementary matter. Or, again, take another
example. When you se a man in pleasure and pain, you
at once infer that he must have done a virtuous or sinful
deed before, since you have noticed that the consequence
of a sinful act is pain, and that of a virtuous deed,
- is that kind of inference, in which there is no relation
of cause and effect between the known datum and the
thing to be inferred, but there is some kind of similarity
between the two. For example, you know that no one can
get another place without moving from the first, and
hence, if you find a person at a certain place, you
can easily infer that he must have come to the latter
place by moving from the first.
- Analogy - is the knowledge of a thing from
its likeness to another. The thing which is required
to be known is called Saadhya, and tha which
becomes the means of this knowledge from some kind of
likeness between the two is called Saadhana
- a man says to his servant : "Go and fetch Vishnu
Mittra." The latter answers that he does not know
him, as he has never seen him before. Thereupon the
master says :- You know Deva Datta, don't you?" Upon
the servant's answering in the affirmative, his master
continues: "Well, Vishnu Mittra is just like Deva
Datta." So the servant went out to find Vishnu Mittra.
As he was passing through a street, he saw a man very
much like Deva Datta, and thought that, thta man must
be Vishnu Mittra, and forthwith brought him to his
take another example. You want to know what a Yak
is. Well, some one tells you, it is just like an ox.
Next time you go to a jungle and happen to see an
animal very much like an ox, you at once know that
it is the Yak you asked your friend about. Now this
kind of knowledge, i.e., knowledge of Vishnu Mittra
from his likeness to Deva Datta and of a Yak from
its likeness to an ox is calledUpamaana or knowledge
by analogy. The words Vishnu Mittra and Yak
are called Saadhya, whilst Deva Datta
and ox are called Saadhana, in the above
- Testimony (literally, word) - "The word of
an A'pt (altruistic teacher) is called Shabda."
NYAAYA Shaastra 1:,i, 7.
A'pt is a person who is a thorough scholar, we versed
in all the sciences and philosophies, physical and
spiritual, is virtuous, truthful, active, free from
passions and desires, imbued with love for others,
and who is an altruistic teacher of humanity solely
actuated with the desire of benefiting the world by
his knowledge, experience and convictions. God being
the truest and greatest of all A'ptas, HIs word the
Veda is also included in shabda (Testimony).
- History - is that which tells us that such
and such a person was so and so, he did such and such
a thing. In other words, Itihaas is the
history of a country or the biography
of a person. NYAAYA Shaastra 2: 2,1.[The experience
of the past recorded in history can be applied to solve
many a difficult question of the day. - Tr.
- Conclusion or deduction. - It is a conclusion
which naturally follows from the statement of a fact;
for instance, one says to another: "Rain falls from
clouds" or " and effect flows from a cause." The natural
conclusion that can be drawn from the above statement
is: "There can be no rain when there are no clouds,"
or "no effects follow when a cause does not exist."
- possibility. - When you hear a thing, the
first thing that enters your mind is whether such and
such a thing is possible. Anything that runs counter
the laws of nature is not possible, and hence it can
never be true; for example, if you are told that a
child was born without parents, such and such a person
raised the dead to life again, or made stones float
on the sea, lifted mountains, broke the moon into
pieces, was God incarnate, or saw horns on the head
of a man, or solemnized the marriage of a couple born
of sterile mother. You could at once know that it
could not have possibly happened, being opposed to
the laws of Nature. That alone is possible which is
in conformity with the laws of nature.
- Absence or Negation.- You infer the existence
of a thing in some other place from its absence
from the place where you were told you find it; for
instance, a gentleman said to his man: "Go and bring
the elephant from the elephant-house." He went there
but found that the elephant was not there. He naturally
conclude that he must be somewhere near about. So he
went out and looked about for the elephant and found
him not very far from its proper place and brought him
to his master.
eight kinds of evidence have been briefly described.
Their number can be reduced to four fi History be
included under Testimony, and Deduction, Possibility,
and Negation under Inference.*
is only by means of these five criteria that a man
can ascertain what is right or wrong and not otherwise.
Supreme Bliss (Moksha) is obtained by living a truly
righteous life and thereby getting the soul purified
and exalted, and gaining a true conception of the
six entities, viz., Noumenon, Attribute, Action,
Commonness, Dissimilitude, and inherent relation,
*They van even be reduced to
three, viz., Direct Cognizance, Inference, and Testimony
if Analogy be included under Inference. - Tr.
as of cause and effect, of whole with its parts).
(Noumena) are nine in number:- Prithivi (Solids),
A'paah (Liquids), Teja (Luminous matter), Vaaya (Gases),
and Akasha, Time, Space, Soul (human and Divine),
and Manas (Principle of thought and attention). VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 1: i, 15.
(Lakshana)* of aDravya (Noumenon):-
It is something in which attributes and actions or
attributes only reside, and which is capable of becoming
a co-inherent** cause of an effect. A cause always
precede its effect. Out of the nine Noumena, Solids,
Liquids, Luminous matter (Ether), Gases, Manas and
Soul possess both attributes and actions; whilst A'kaasha,
Time and space possess attributes only but no action.
VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: i, 1.
(Solids) is something, which excites the optic, gustatory,
olfactory and tactile impulses. Colour,*** taste and
touch are derived from liquids, Luminiferous, matter
or ether, and Gases, respectively." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra2:
power of exciting olfactory impulses is the natural
inherent attribute of solids" VAISHEHIKA Shaastra
2: ii, 2., similarly taste is the attribute of Liquids,
Light of Luminiferous matter (Ether), touch of Gases
and Shabda,**** of A'kaash.
*A lakshana, is that by means
of which, and object (to be known) is known, for example,
colour is seen with the eyes. Eyes are therefore called
**Co-inherent means capable of combining.
***i.e., the power of exciting
visual, gustatory, and tactile impulses. These terms
are used in this sense throughout this chapter.
****Shabda is erroneously translated
into sound. Now shabda is not sound, though it is true
that shabda is accompanied by sound, when it is spoken.
It is very difficult to convey to the reader what the
term shabda in the Sanskrit philosophy signifies. The
Sanskrit philosophers hold that man being incapable
of inventing language, the root-language must be inherent
in nature itself. The root-language, which is the mother
of human speech is called shabda. and is supposed to
inhere in a noumenon called A'kaasha. This root-language
is revealed to man by God in the beginning of each creation.
(Liquids) is something which excites the optic,
gustatory, and olfactory impulses, and in which fluidity
and moisture are to be found. The attribute of exciting
gustatory sensation is naturally inherent in Liquids,
whilst colour and touch are derived from Ether and
Gases." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: i, 2.
is also a natural attribute of Liquids." VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 2: ii, 3.
(Luminous matter) is something which excites
the optic and tactile impulses." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra
2:i, 3. The former is its own inherent attribute,
whilst the latter is derived from Gases.
(gases) is something which excites tactile
impulses." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: i, 4. Though heat
and cold are also to be found in it but they are derived
from Teja (Luminous matter and A'pah (Liquids).
has not the attribute of exciting these impulses,"
VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: i, 5, i.e., of light, touch,
taste, and smell. Shabda alone is the attribute of
and Ingress are the linga* of A'kaasha." VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 2: i, 20.
not being observed to be produced by solids and other
substances, is not their attribute." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra
2: i, 25. It resides only in A'kasha.
is that of which nearness, futurity, simultaneity,
slowness and quickness are predicated."VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 2: ii, 6.
*i.e., the datum from which
the existence of A'kaasha is inferred. - Tr.
is an essential element in the production of effects,
whilst causes are independent of it. Time is, therefore,
spoken of as a cause." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: ii,
- "That to which "this side" or "that side" i.e.,
North, South, East and West), above and below are
applicable, is called space."VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 2: ii, 10.
direction of space where the sun is first seen to
rise is called East, where he sets, is West. A man
facing the East has south on his right and North on
his left." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: ii, 14.
directions are South-east, South-west, North-east
and North-west." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 2: ii, 16.
- "That substratum, in which desire, repulsion, feelings
of pleasure, feeling of pain, conscious exertion (will),
and consciousness,* are found is called the Atmaa
(soul)."NYAAYA Shaastra 1: 10.
Vaisheshika Philosophy defines soul thus:-
substance, in which respiration, nictitation, physical
building and animation, movement, sensation, activity
of the senses, organic feelings (such as hunger and
thirst, fever, pain, etc.),** desire, repulsion, feeling
of pleasure, feeling of pain, conscious exertion,
and consciousness are found, is called soul".
VAISHESHIKA Shaastra 3: ii, 4.
*Here only the voluntary functions
of the soul are enumerated.
**So far the involuntary attributes
and functions are mentioned, then follow the voluntary
functions which are the same as in the foregoing definition.
(Principle of though and attention)- "The existence
of Manas (the mind or the organ of attention)
is established from the fact that one is only capable
of attending to one thing at a time."* NYAAYA Shaastra
1; i, 16.
powers of exciting impulses,** of colour, taste, smell,
touch; number, measure, separableness, property of
combining, divisibility, proximity, distance, consciousness,
pleasures, pain, deire, aversion, conscious
*To give the reader a clearer
idea of this substratum called Manas, I cull the following
from "Evidences of Human Spirit":- "It is said fo a
Greek Philosopher that he was engaged in solving a mathematical
problem when and army passed by and he was altogether
unconscious of it till a soldier effaced the circle,
the philosopher had drawn on the earth, a fact which
alone disturbed the attention of the philosopher. What
followed may be left to history. Was the movement of
an army entirely noiseless? Were no sound waves propagated
when the philosopher was solving his mathematical problem?
Did not the waves enter the cavity of his ear and put
to vibration the tympanic membrane, the delicately placed
steps and the grain filled liquid in the internal labyrinths
of the ear, in fact the invisible medium of sensation
upon the nerves, the indriyas? All this did take place
but the philosopher was not attending to it.
was in the philosopher a something which when engaged
in thinking (i.e., solving the problem) was not in
contact with the internal ear, a something whose contact
with one indriya or faculty precluded its contact
simultaneously with another. Its contact with an indriya
and therefore with an organ is called what is called
Attention; its separation from this cuts the cords
of connection and the result is what we call Absent-mindedness.
Nor is this Manas the conscious faculty, for who does
not know that all the ideas, that our experience has
acquired for us, lie for the most part in a latent
state in the brain or more correctly in the manas
but each and any of them is remembered whenever it
**What is perceived by the eye
called colour. What is perceived by the tongue is
called taste, which is of different kinds, such a
sweet, salt, etc.
What is perceived through the nose is called smell.
What is perceived through the skin is called touch.
What conveys the idea of one, two, etc., is called
What conveys the idea of lightness and heaviness is
Separableness is the quality of being separate from
Sanyoga - power of combining, explains itself.
Divisibility is the quality of being divisible.
Proximity is the immediate nearness either in place,
time or relationship.
Distance (in time or place) explains itself.
Virtue - just conduct.
Sinfulness - unjust conduct.
Other term explain themselves. - Tr.
gravity, fluidity, oiliness, and love, impressibility,
virtue and roughness, sinfulness and smoothness or
laxity and Shabda (sound and language) are twenty-four
attributes or qualities (Gunaas)>"VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 1: i, 16.
Attribute (Gunaa) is that which is dependent
upon or resides in a substratum which cannot itself
possess an attribute, is not the cause of combination
or of an attribute, is not the cause of combination
or of division into parts, and is anaapeksha, i.e.,
independent on another attribute." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra
1: i, 16.
is that, which is received through the ears, grasped
by the intellect, expressed through speech, and resides
descent, contraction, expansion, coming, going, and
rotation, etc., are the different kinds of Karma
(motion and action)." MAHABHASHYA
which resides in a substratum, possesses no attributes,
and is an absolute cause of a combination or a division,
is called Karma (motion)."VAISHESHIKA
1: I, 17.
effects:- Substrata, attributes, motions (or actions)
that which is the cause of all and is, therefore,
common to all, is called Saamaanya (common-element)."
VAISHESHIKA Shaastra1: i, 18.
effects of the same Dravya (Substratum),
the Saamaanya (common-element), is the
fact of their being all effects." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra
1: i, 32.
dravyaas (Substances), dravyaaship,*
among gunas (attributes), Gunaship; among karmaas
(actions) karmaship* are Saamaanya (common-element),
as well as Vishesha (distinctive element)."
VAISHESHIKA Shaastra. 1: 4, 5. For example - dravyaahship
i.e., the fact of being a dravyaa (substance), is
common to all substances , but it also distinguishes
them from attributes (gunaas). Therefore it (dravyaship)
is Saamaanya (common-element), as well
as Vishesha (distinctive element).**
and Dissimilituede are relative term." VAISHESHIKA
Shaastra 1: 4, 3. for instance, among human humanship,*
i.e., the fact of being human, is the Common element
(Saamaanya), whilst it also distinguishes human beings
from animals, thus in this sense it is also the distinguishing-element
(Vishesa) ; similarly, masculinity or feminity
is common to all men and women respectively, but Braahmanism,
Kshatryism, and Vaishyism are the distinguishing-elements
among men and women, whilst Braahmanism
is the common-element among all Braahmans,
Kshatryism is the common-element
among all Kshatriyaas and so on.
(Inherent relation) is the inseparable and
eternal relation between the whole and its parts,
between an action and its agent, between an attribute
and its substratum, between genius and its species,
and between a cause and its effect." VAISHESHIKA Shaastra
7: 2, 26.
mutual relation of substrata with one another being
in the nature of a combination (physical or Chemical
-Tr.), is of a temporary character.
*I apologize - to my readers
for coining such terms as these. For want of equivalent
words in Englinsh I have been compelled to do so in
order to make the text intelligible. - Tr.
*We take for example a cow:-
All that is common to all cows is called the common-element
(Saamaanya). Now this common -element distinguishes
every cow from the rest of the creation, hence it is
alse the differentiating- element (Visheshha).
relation between substances, that they possess some
attributes in common and can also be converted into
different forms which are always essentially of the
same nature as the substances out of which they were
made, is called Saadharmya (similar).
For example, take earth and water. Both are inanimate
substances, both can be converted into different forms,
as earth can be molded into a pot, etc., and water
into a lump of ice, etc. Therefore, earth and water
are Saadharmya (similar) in this respect.
reverse of Saadharmya is Vaidharma
(dissimilar), when the attributes are dissimilar,
as in the case of earth and water, earth is hard,
dry and excites* olfactory impulses, whilst water
possesses moisture, fluidity and power of exciting
gustatory impulses.** These attributes are quite different
from each other, hence earth and water are (Vaidharma)
in this respect.
effect presupposes a cause>" VAISHESHIKA 4:,i,
there is no cause, there can be no effect." VAISHESHIKA
1: i, 2.
of an effect does not prove the non-existence of the
cause." VAISHESHIKA 1: ii, 1.
effect only reveals whatsoever pre-existed in the
cause. No new attribute can spring up." VAISHESHIKA2:
I, 24. Small and great are relative term as a tetratomic
molecule is smaller than a likshaa***
but greater than a diatomic molecule; or as a mountain
is smaller than the earth, but greater than a tree.
(existence) is the state of being whether
of a substratum, an attribute or an action." VAISHESHIKA
1: ii, 7.
*As earth is a kind of Prithivi.
**As water is a kind of A'pah.
***i.e., a mote.
can be affirmed of everything that exists. Therefore
satt is called the Greates Common Element (Mahaa
saamaanya)i.e., common to all the entites."
VAISHESHIKA 1: ii, 4.
far entities have been discribed. Now we shall briefly
describe non-entities (non-existences or abhaavaa)
which are of five kinds:-
Praagaabhaava.- That kind of non-existence
which precedes the formation of a thing is called
praagaabhaava."VAISHESHIKA 9: 1: i,
1 For instance, a piece of clothe or a pot did not
exist before either of them was made. This non-existence
of a piece of cloth or a pot before its formation
- "Non-existence following the existence of a thing
is called Pradhwansaabhaava"VAISHESHIKA
9: i, 2. As when a pot is broken it ceases to exist
as a pot, its none-existence then is called Pradhwansaabhaava.
9: i, 4. - "That which exists in relation to one
thing and does not exist in relation to another
is called Anyonyaabhaava. As a cow
exists as a cow, or a horse exists as a horse, but
a cow is not a horse, nor is a horse, a cow. That
is, a cow in relation to itself exists, but a cow
as a horse, or a horse as a cow, does not exist.
This kind of non-existence is called Anyonyaabhaava
- "That which is different form the aforesaid three
kinds of non-existences, is called Atyantaabhaava.VAISHESHIKA
9: i, 5. As the horns of a man, or an ethereal flower,
or the child of a barren woman. This is impossible
sort of non-existence is called Atyantaabhaava.
Pratishedha. - "Non-existence of a thing
in one place whilst it exists in another, is called
Sansarga Pratishedha"VAISHESHIKA 9:
i, 10. - As, for example, a person says: "the pot
is not in the house", i.e., it is outside in some
other place. Here the pot and the house are not
related to each other in any way.
(Avidyaa) is the result of defective faculties
and education."* VAISHESHIKA 9: ii, 11.
is another name for incorrect knowledge."VAISHESHIKA
9: ii, 12.
correct knowledge or the knowledge ofa thing as it
exists, is called Knowledge (Vidyaa)."VAISHESHIKA
9: ii, 12
those substrata, as, Prithivi etc.,
and their attributes that are effects, are non-eternalor
transient (Anitya); whilst those that
are causes are Eternal (Nitya)." VAISHESHIKA
which exists and has no cause is called Nitya
(Eternal); whilst that which has a cause or
has been made is Non-eternal (Anitya)."
VAISHESHIKA 7: i, 3.
are 6 kinds of Inferential knowledge, i.e., knowledge
derived from the relation of a sign with the object
we proceed from causes to effects.Example.
A man at some distance sees a man clap his hands ans
at once infers that sound will be produced.
*I have used the word Education
in the widest sense possible, whether it be there result
of direct teaching or of association with other people
or of environments. The word used in the text is sanskara
which means an impression made on the soul either subjectively
or objectively. - Tr.
we proceed from causes to effects. Example.
A person hears the sound (peculiar to the clapping of
hands) and at once infers that there has been clapping
of hand close by." VAISHESHIKA 9; ii, 1.
(Concurrent) knowledge is that which is obtained
from the concurrence of one thing with another. Example.
The mention of the word body at once suggests
the existence of skin along with it.
(Inherent) knowledge is that which is obtained
from the inherence of something (i.e., an attribute
substance or an action) in another. Example. We know
Extension inheres in Ether, therefore, from the mere
mention of the word Ether, Extension is
at once inferred.
Samvaayi knowledge. When two things (such as
attributes) reside in a substance, the knowledge of
one at once suggests the other. This kind of inferential
knowledge is called Ekaartha Samvaayi.
For example, we see the orange colour
of an orange and at once infer that it must be smooth
to touch or sweetish in
(Antithetic) knowledge; is that which is gained
from the natural opposition of ideas or things. White
colour will suggest black colour; sweettaste
suggests bitter taste; hissing of a snake
at once will suggest that its natural foe, the mongoose,
must be close by.
is the relation of two things (one of which is a known
datum and the other not known)
which are related to each other in a definite, fixed
relation so that either of them always accompanies the
other, or only one accompanies the other; as an example
of the latter we
*Samvaayi is the inseparable,
inherent relation of a substance, an attribute on an
action with another substance, just as the relation
of fluidity with fluids, whoe with its parts, genus
with its species, etc., see page 73.
fire and smoke. Now in
this case smoke is the datum (Saadhana)
by means of which fire (Saadhya, i.e.,
the thing inferred) is known. Whenever
you see smoke, you naturally conclude
that there is fire somewhere. The relation
between the two is not an arbitrary one, but a natural,
definite and universal one. You can nowhere find smoke
Saadhana (sign) sometimes exists temporarily
by its own power", SAANKYA Pravaxhan, 5: 31, as smoke,
caused by the disintegrating power of fire (from wood,
etc.) when carried to distant places, is seen hanging
by itself without the fire being found near it. This
also called Vyaapti.
relation of one pervading the other is also called
Vyaapti just as the primeval matter
(Prakriti)* pervades the principle of wisdom
, whilst the latter is said to be pervaded
by the former, i.e., the higher pervades
the lower whilst the latter is pervaded
by the former. In other words, the relation of the
thing pervading this called Vyaapti.
should examine everything they teach to their students
with the help of the above criteria; so should the
students. Other wise they can never be profound scholars.
They will only be mere krammers. Teachers before teaching
a book should thoroughly study it themselves and test
the truth of its contents by the application of the
aforesaid test. On finding it true they should teach
it their scholars, otherwise not.
It is only by their properties and the applications
of (the aforesaid) tests that the true nature of things
SCHEME OF STUDIES
of all comes Phonetics (shikshaa)
by Panini. Parents and teachers should teach their
children and pupils how to pronounce different letters
in their right places, with the right
amount of effort and the right agent.
For example, take the letter P. The
*Prakriti is held to be
the subtlest form of matter, out of which all the
visible and the invisible objects of the world are
evolved. Prakriti being subtlest and the cause ,
next in the stage of evolution - a little less subtle
than it - comes what is called Mahaatatwa (the principle
of wisdom), a stage lower still comes Ahankaara
(the principle of Individuality) and so on. - Tr.
place to pronounce it is the lips,
the proper amount of effort is what
is called full and the right agent
is the tongue.
comes grammar. It includes Ashtaadhayayi;
Dhaatupaath (Book of roots), Ganapath
(book of groups), Unaadikosh (Book
of prefixes and suffixes, etc.). Last of all comes
Mahaabhaashya (Exposition of the above
four books of Panini or Patanjali.
the teachers and their scholars be intelligent,
energetic, honest and extremely anxious to advance
their knowledge, the pupils can master the Science
of Grammar in three years, and thus become profound
Grammarians thoroughly acquainted with the construction
of every word - Vedic or Laukika (i.e.,
of ordinary Sanskrit literature)>
sciences are easier to learn. The amount of labour
that is required to learn the Science of Grammar
is greater than that required to master any other
subject; and the amount of knowledge acquired
by the study of the above books on Grammar in
three years cannot be gained by the study of such
books as Saarswata Chandrikaa, Kaumadi,
and Manormaa, in fifty years.
reason is that the great sages have expounded
the most abstruse subjects in their books in such
an easy way that it is entirely impossible or
ordinary ment to approach it. The aim of those
great souls in writng their books was to make
the subject so easy as to be readily grasped in
the shortest possible time; whilst the object
of little minds has always been to clothe their
subject with such a difficult-round -about style
as would necessitate great labour and waste of
time, on the part of the student, to comprehend
it, whilst he would profit but very little.
can liken this to digging up a whole mountain
and finding a penny-worth of gold; whilst the
study of the books of the great sages can be well
likened to the diving of a man into the sea and
finding most valuable pearls in one plunge.
let them read Nighantoo and Nirukta
(books on Vedic Vocabulary and Philology)
by Yaska in six to eight months, but not waste years
of their valuable time over Amarkosha and
other such books written by atheists.
they should study Chhandograntha (Prosody)<
by Pingala, so that they may thoroughly master the
rules that govern versification - Vedic and
Sanskrit - an be able to compose poems
of their own. This can be done in four months. They
not waste their time over Vritratnaakar
and the like books written by mean scholars.
they should study the Manu Smriti,
the Vaalmiki Raamaayana, the Vidurniti
and other selections like this from the
Mahabhaarat. The tutor should teach
these as poetry ought to be taught. The study of
these books tends to eradicate evil habits and bring
culture. It should not take the students more than
a year to finish them.
they should study the six Shaastraas (commonly
called the six schools or systems of philosophy)
with the expositions of Rishis - the
enlightened great souls, the true seers of nature
- as far as possible, or in the absence of these,
with the help of the true commentaries of other
honest scholars. But before taking up Vedant
Shaastraa They should learn the ten Upnishads.**
All these books should be finished in two years.
they should study the four Vedas***
with their four Braahmanaas**** with
proper accent meanings, (and finish this course
in six years). The Vedaas should be
both taught by example and precept.
Nirukta on this subject:-
who reads the Vedaas even with proper
accents, but does not know their meanings, is
like a tree weighed down by its fruit, branches,
leaves and flowers, or like a beast of burden
carrying on its back grain which it cannot eat.
But he, who understands their meanings and acts
up to their teachings by avoiding sin and leading
a virtuous life, enjoys perfect happiness in this
world and eternal (extreme) bliss herafter
in consequence thereof." NIRUKTA 1: 18.
*Poorva mimansaa, Vaisheshika,
Nyaaya, Yoga, Saankhya and Vedanta.
**I'sh, Kena, Katha, Prashna,
Moonduka, Aitreya, Taitreya, Chhandogya and Vrihadaaranyka.
***Rig, Yjur, Saama andAtharva
****Aitreya, Shatapatha, Saama and Gopatha.
the Rig Veda:-
"An ignorant man has eyes to see but sees nothing,
has ears to hear but hears nothing, has a tongue
to speak but speaks nothing. The ignorant can
never understand the hidden mysteries of knowledge.
But it is to the learned alone that knowledge
reveals its true nature, just as a woman longing
to meet her husband, dresses in her best and puts
on her finest jewelry, so as to display her charms
to him." RIG VEDA 10: 17.4.
good can the Vedaas do unto him
who does not know that Great Being, who is All-pervading
and Eternal, Holiest of all, Who sustains the
Sun and the Earth, and is the support of the learned,
the method of Whose realization is the chief aim
of Vedic teaching? But they alone enjoy eternal
bliss who study the Vedaas,
live a righteous life, become perfect Yogis
and realize God. RIG VEDA 1: 164. 39.
the study of the Vedaas they should
learn the Upavedaas (or sub-Vedaas)
which are four in number:-
- Medical Science - Herein are included
the works of Charak and sushrut,
and other sages. They should learn both
theory and practice, including Medicine, Therapeutics,
Materia, Physiology and Pathology, Hygiene with
Dietetics and Climatology and the sciences of
Temperaments, Anatomy and Surgery with the proper
use of instruments in different operations,
etc., in four years.
Veda - Science of Government - It consists
of two parts:-
(i)Civil part - is the art of
governing people, protecting their lives and
property, developing the wealth and resources
of the country, making the people happy and
contented by the right administration of justice
- protecting the good and punishing the wicked,
Military part, comprises organization
of the army, use of fire-arms and the knowledge
of different kinds of drill, tactics and strategy,
etc. The should learn both branches of the
Science of Government in two
Veda - Science of Music - They should
learn all the different parts of music, such
as tunes, modes, modifications of modes, time,
harmony, refrain. They should also learn singing,
playing, and dancing, etc., properly, but chiefly
singing and playing of the Saama Veda
Mantraas on musical instruments. But
they should never sing amorous songs like Nauch-girls
nor bray like sensual Vairaagees..*
books on this subject are Naarad Sanhitaa,
etc., composed by Rishis.
Veda - science and practice of mechanical arts
-also called Shilpa Vidyaa.
They should study the laws of matter and motion.
They should also know how to make various kinds
of machines, etc.
short, they should learn theoretically and practically,
the nature and properties of all substances from solids
to A'kaashka. This is the science that
helps to increase the wealth and prosperity of a country.
they should thoroughly study the Jyotisha Shaastra
- which includes Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry,
Geography, Geology and astronomy
in two years. They should also have practical training
in these Sciences, learn the proper handling of instruments,
master their mechanism, and know how to use them.
But they should regard Astrology - which
treats of the influence of stars and constellation
on the destinies of man, of auspiciousness and non-auspiciousness
of time, of horoscopes, etc. - as a fraud, and never
learn or teach any books on this subject.
the teachers and their scholars should so endeavour
as to be able to master all the sciences and arts,
and become highly cultured in twenty or twenty-one
years, and thus accomplish the object of their lives
and live in happiness.
knowledge that can be acquired by following the aforesaid
schemes in twenty or twenty-one years cannot be gained
in any other way even on one hundred years.
*A sect of mendicants.
APPROVED AND BOOKS CONDEMNED
We have recommended only the books of Rishis for students
to study, because they were men of great learning,
masters of all the sciences, and also imbued with
piety. but the books of mean scholars we have condemned,
because they had only a smattering of knowledge, and
were not free from prejudice either. How could their
writings, then, be free from the faults of their authors?
of all the above-mentioned books (we have recommended
the student to study), - the Vedaas ,
Angaas (Limbs),* Upangaas,**
(sub-limbs), Braahmans*** and
Upvedaas**** (sub-Vedaas) - the Vedaas>
alone are held to be Divine in origin, the rest were
made by Rishis - seers of the Veda and
anything be found even in their writings contrary
to the teachings of the Vedaas, it is
to be rejected, for the Vedaas alone,
being of Divine in Origin, are free from error and
aximatic Swataah Pramaana), in other
words the Vedaas are their own authority;
whilst other books such as the Braahmanaas
are Prartaahpramaana, i.e., dependent
upon the Vedaas for their authority.
They stand or faoll according to their conformity
or conflict with the Vedaas.***** The
books to be avoided are:-
b. Saaraswata, c. Chandrika, d. Mugdhabodha. e.
Kaumudi, f. Shekhar, g. Monorma, etc.
- Amarkosha, etc.
- Urittaratnakar, etc.
is the Science which teaches the proper pronunciation
of words and laws of euphony.
Atka Shiksham Pravakshyami Pranamyan matam
(astronomy) - Shighrabodha, Mahurta, Chintaamani,
ettc. books on astrology.
- Naya ka bheda, Kuvabja nand, Raghuvansha, Maagha,
- Dharmasindhu, Vratarka, etc.
- Tarkasangraha, etc.
- Yagavashishtha, Pancha dashi
Service - Sharangdhar.
- all Smritis except the Manu Smirit arring the
Tantras, Puranaas, Upapuraanaas, Ramaayaana by Tulsi
Das, Rukmani Mangala, etc., and all books 9of this
kind) written in Bhaashaa.
They ought to be looked upon as snares; once caught
in them a student can never know the truth.
there no truth to be found in these books?
A.~ There is a sprinkling of truth mixed with a large
amount of rubbish, myths and fabrications; but as
even the best food mixed with poison is to be avoided,
so should these books.
you not believe in the Puraanaas, Ithihaasa, etc.?
A.~ Yes, we do; but only in the true ones, not in
the forged ones.
Which of them ar ture and which forged of false?
" Ithihaasa, Puraana, Kalpa, Gaathaa and
Naaraashansi are five names given to Braahmanaas
(that have been mentioned before). The Bhaagvat
and the like books ar not the real Puraanaas.
*There are six in number:- Phonetic
sciences of morals and duties, Grammar, Philology, Music
**They are also six in number.
They ar the so-called six Schools of Philosophy, see
*** & ****They are four
in number, and have been enumerated before, see page
*****or further elucidation of this
subject see Chapter 7 of this book as well as our book
called "An Introduction to the exposition of the four
do you not accept whatever truth there is to be
found in the condemned books?
i Whatever>truth is to be found in them is
of the Vedaas and other true Shaastraas,
whilst whatever is false in them is of their own invention.
With the acceptance of the Veda and
other Shaastraas the whole truth is
accepted. He, who tries to extract truth from these
false books, will have to unavoidably swallow untruth
as well. Therefore even truth, which is adulterated
with untruth, should be avoided like food adulterated
is your faith?
A.~ Vedic. We believe that the Vedaas
alone are the supreme authority in the ascertainment
of true religion - the true conduct of life.
Whatever is enjoined by the Vedaas we
hold to be right; whilst whatever is condemned by
them we believe to be wrong. Therefore we say that
our religion is Vedic. All men, especially
the Aryas, should believe in the Vedaas
and thereby cultivate unity in religion.
the Rishis in contradiction with one another?
Q. Even the Shaatraas written by Rishis - contain
truth mixed with untruth, and contradict one another
like other books. Take for ezample, the subject of
Creation. Now all the six Shaastraaas contradict one
another on this subject. The Mimaansaa, for instance,
gives application a the cause of the world; the Vaisheshika,
time; the Nyaaya, atoms; the yoga, activity; the Saankhya,
primeval matter, and the Vedant, God. Are not their
teachings mutually contradictory?
Firstly, barring the Vedaant and the
Saankhya these Shaastras do
not teat of the subject of creation
directly. It is only indirectly mentioned. Secondly,
there is no contradiction in their teachings. It only
shows that you have no knowledge of contrariety ad
conformity. Now tell me pray, do you call it a contradiction
when different statements are made on the same subject
or when made on different subjects?
When different statements ae made on the same subject.
Here, too, the subject is the same, viz., creation.
Is knowledge one thing or more than one?
If it be one, why then are there so many divisions
of this knowledge, such as Grammar, Medicine, and
Astronomy. As in the
of one science, its different branches are treated
of separately, so are the six branches of the Science
of Creation treated of separately in the six
Shaastraaas. You can never call it a
contradiction, can you? Just as six different causes
take part in the formation of a pot, viz., application,
time, clay, intellect, labour (required for mixing
or separating different materials), the properties
of matter, and thereafter, similarly six different
causes of the world have been discussed by the six
Shaastraas, thus application
by Mimaansa, Time by the
Vaisheshika, material cause
by Nyaaya, Divine activity by
Yoga, atoms and the gradual formation of the
different substances of the world out of them
by the Saankhya and the efficient cause
God by the Vedaant.
is no contradiction in it. Or take for illustration
the Medical Science. Its six different branches, Pathology,*
Medicine and Therapeutics, Materia Medica, Hygiene
and Surgery,* are separately treated, but all these
aim at curing disease. Likewise six different causes
have operated in the formation of this world; on cause
having been discussed by each Shaastra
there is no contradiction in them **
the teachers and their scholars should void all those
things that act as hindrances in the way of the acquisition
of knowledge, such as the company of the wicked and
lascivious people, contraction of bad habits (such
as the use of intoxicants), fornication, child-marriage,***
want of perfect Brahmacharya, want of
love on the part of the rulers, parents and learned
men for the dissemination of knowledge of the Veda
and other Shaastraas,.
eating, keeping late hours, sloth in learning, teaching,
examining or being examined, or performing these duties
with dishonesty, not regarding knowledge s the highest
thing in the world, want of faith in Brahmacharya
as the source of health, strength, intellect, courage,
political pwer and wealth, leaving off the worship
of one true God, and wasting time in going about from
place to place for the purpose of seeing and worshipping
images made of stone, and other inanimate objects,
absence of the worship of the five true living gods
- father, mother , teacher, altruistic teachers
of humanity (atithis) and other great men,
- neglect in the performance of the
*Physiology is included under
Pathology, and Anatomy under Surgery. -Tr.
**We shall discuss this subject more fully in the Chapter
*** i.e., marriage under 16 years in the case a girl,
and under 25 years in the case of a man.
of their Classand Order,
and instead, wearing different marks of sectarian
distinction on the forehead and other parts of the
body.* Chaplets and rosaries, etc., observance of
fasting days as the 11th and 13th of each month, having
faith in the forgiveness of sins by pilgrimage to
such sacred places, as Benares, and by constant recitation
of the names of gods and goddesses such as Rama,
Krishna, Naaryaaa, Shiva, Bhawati and Ganesha,
indifference towards the acquisition of knowledge
through the wicked advice of hypocrites, believe in
the possibilities of obtaining salvation simply through
hearing such books as Puraanas and (Bhaagvat
and the like) read, and thus neglecting the study
of the true philosophies of and sciences, the living
of good and righteous lives, the practice of Yoga,
and communion with God - which alone can lead to eternal
bliss - want of love for knowledge through greed
of gold, and loafing about, etc.
(of India), at the present day, who are involved in
the aforesaid false practices, remain destitute of
the advantages of Brahmacharya and education,
are consequently sunk in ignorance, and afflicted
with diverse diseases.
sectarian and selfish Braahmans of the present
time prevent other people, through their false teachings,
from acquiring knowledge and association with men
of learning, ensnare them in their own nets and thus
ruin them physically, mentally, and materially. They
want to keep the Khatriyaas and other classes
illiterate, since they are afraid that if they acquired
knowledge and become enlightened, they would expose
their hypocrisy, get out of their selfish grip, and
become disrespectful towards them.
the rulers and the ruled should see that these obstacles
are removed from the path of the students (male and
female) of all classes. In order to give their children
sound education, they should exert themselves to their
utmost with all their hearts, all their souls and
all their wealth.
even women and Shoodraas (low-caste) allowed to
study the Vedas?
What shall we do if they take to reading? Besides,
there is no authority for their doing so. On the other
hand, is condemned by the Vedas thus - Shruti "Never
should women and the Shoodraas study."
*such as Oordhava pundra - a
single perpendicular line on the forehead;
Tripundra- three lines made across the forehead and
other parts of the body;
Tilak - a coloured mark on the forehead made with ashes,
~ All men and women ( i.e., the whole of mankind)
have a right to study. You may go and hang yourselves.
As for the text you have quoted, it is of you own
fabrication, and is no where to be found either in
the Vedas or any other authoritative book.
On the other hand, here is a verse from the Yajur
Veda that authorizes all men to study the Veda
and hear it read:-
God says:- "As I have given this Word (i.e., the four
Vedas) which is the word of salvation* for all making
[Here some one might say that by the word Jana,
which we have translated into all mankind, only Dwijas
are meant, as in the Smritis** ( so-called)
they alone are allowed to study the Veda but
not women and Shoodraas, the other half of
this verse answers this objection by adding] - Braahmans,
Kshatryas, Vaishyaas, Shoodraas, women, servants,
aye, even the lowest of the low, so should you all
do, i.e., teach and preach the Veda and thereby
acquire true knowledge, practise virtue, shun vice,
and consequently being freed from all sorrow and pain,
enjoy true happiness." YAJUR VEDA 26:2.
sir, shall we believe your word or God's ? God's,
certainly. He who will still refuse to believe, (that
women and Shoodraas are entitled to Veda learning)
shall be called a Nastika (an infidel) because
Manu has said, "He is an infidel who is a reviler
and disbeliever of the Veda." Does not God
desire the welfare of the Shoodraas? Is God
prejudiced that he should allow the study of the Veda
to Dwijas and disallow it to Shoodraas?
God meant that the Shoodraas should not study
the Veda or hear it read, why should He have created
the organs of speech and hearing in their bodies?
As He has created the sun, the moon, the earth, the
water, the fire, the air, various food and drinks,
etc., for all, so has He revealed the Veda for all.
Wherever it is declared (in the books of Rishis) that
the Shoodraas are debarred from the study of
*i.e., Happiness here and after.
**Books written by Rishis on the conduct of life. -Tr.
prohibition simply amounts to this that he, that does
not learn anything even after a good deal of teaching,
being ignorant and destitute of understanding, is
called a Shoodraa. It is useless for him to
learn, and for others to teach him any longer. As
for you debarring women from education, that only
shows your ignorance, selfishness and stupidity. Here
is an authority from the Veda entitling girls to study:-
"Just as boys acquire sound knowledge and culture
by the practice of Brahmacharya and then marry
girls of their own choice, who are young , well educated,
loving and of like temperament, should girl practice
Brahmacharya study the Veda and other sciences
and thereby perfect her knowledge, refine her character,
give her hand to a man of her own choice, who is young,
learned and loving." ATHARVA VEDA 11, 14:3, 18.
follows, therefore, that girls should also practise
Brahmacharya and receive education.
even women read the Veda?
A. ~ Certainly. Here is an authority from the Shraut
Sutra: "(In the Yajna) let the wife recite this
she not a scholar of the Veda as well as of other
Shaastraas, how could she in the Yajna
receive the Vedic Mantraas with proper pronunciation
and accent, as well as speak Sanskrit?
ancient India, Gaargi
and other ladies, - jewels among women - were highly
educated and perfect scholars of the Veda. This is
clearly written in the Shatpatha Brahmana.
if the husband be well-educated and the wife ignorant
or vice versa, there will be a constant state of warfare
in the house. Besides of women were not to study,
where will the teachers, or Girls' schools come from?
Nor could ever the affairs of the state, the administration
of justice, and the duties of married life, that are
required of both husband and wife [such as keeping
each other happy, the wife having the supreme control
over all household matters] be carried on properly
without thorough education ( of men and women).
Kshatriyaas women in ancient India, used to
be well-acquainted even with the military science,
or how could they have gone with their male relations
and fought side by side with them in battle-fields,
as Kekai did with her royal husband Dasharatha.
Therefore it behoves Braahman and Kshatriyaa
women to acquire all kinds of knowledge, and Vaishya
women to learn trace, and the mechanical arts and
the like, and Shoodraa women, the art of cooking,
men should, at the very least, learn the science of
Grammar, Dharma and their profession or trade, likewise
should women learn Grammar, Dharma*, Medical Science,
Mathematics and the mechanical arts at the least,
for without a knowledge of these, ascertainment of
truth, proper behaviour towards their husbands and
other people, bearing of good children, their proper
up-bringing and instruction, proper management of
the household affairs, preparation of foods and drinks
in accordance with the requirements of Medical Science,
( so that they may act on the system like good medicine
and keep the whole family free from disease and thereby
make them happy), can never be effected.
a knowledge of mathematics, they can never keep accounts
of their household properly; and without a knowledge
of true religion, as taught by the Veda and other
Shaastraas, they cannot know what God and Dharma
are, and can never, therefore, escape going astray
from the path of rectitude.
those parents have done their duty and, therefore,
a thousand thanks to them, who have their best to
make their children practise Brahmacharya,
acquire knowledge, and perfect their character, which
al help to develop both their bodies and minds to
the fullest extent, so that they may accord a just
and righteous treatment to all - parents, husbands,
wives, fathers -in-laws, mothers-in-laws, their king
and fellow subjects, neighbours, friends and offspring,
alone is the inexhaustible treasure; the more you
spend it, the more it grows. All other treasures run
out by spending, and the claimants inherit their shares
as well. Thieves cannot steal this treasure, nor,
can anyone inherit it.
*comprises righteousness, justice,
honesty, proper discharge of one's duties, etc. - Tr.
is the chief duty of the rulers, as well as of the
ruled, to protect and augment this treasure.
says:- "The State should make it compulsory for all
to send their children of both sexes to school at
the said* period and keep them there for the said**
period till they are thoroughly well-educated. It
should be made a penal offence to break this law.
In other words, let no child - whether a girl or a
boy - be allowed to stay in the house*** after the
8th year; let him remain in the seminary till his
Samaavartana time, [i.e. the period of Return
home****] and let no one be allowed to marry before
that." MANU 7:152.
says Manu:- "Of all gifts (that one can bestow on
another) - water, food, animals ( as cows, and buffaloes),
sesamum seeds, land, clothes, gold, and butter, etc.
- that of the knowledge of the Veda is the best and
the noblest." MANU 4:233
all, therefore, try their utmost to disseminate knowledge
with all their heart, with all their soul, and with
all the material resources at their command.
country alone prospers where Brahmacharya is
properly practised, knowledge is keenly sought after,
and the teachings of the Vedic religion followed.
OF CHAPTER 3